Beginning in 2007 or 2008 (depending on the country), the old map was replaced by a map of Europe also showing countries outside the EU.[35] The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, however, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the EU member states https://www.topforexnews.org/news/cme-to-close-chicago-trading-floor-on-coronavirus/ as of 2002, raised somewhat above the rest of the map. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro.

Our currency rankings show that the most popular Euro exchange rate is the EUR to USD rate. These are the average exchange rates of these two currencies for the last 30 and 90 days. Bulgaria has negotiated an exception; euro in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet is spelled eвро (evro) and not eуро (euro) in all official documents.[125] In the Greek script the term ευρώ (evró) is used; the Greek “cent” coins are denominated in λεπτό/ά (leptó/á). As of January 2014, and since the introduction of the euro, interest rates of most member countries (particularly those with a weak currency) have decreased.

  1. Voters in Denmark narrowly rejected the euro in a September 2000 referendum.
  2. It is the second-most traded currency on the forex market, after the US Dollar, and also a major global reserve currency.
  3. The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos, which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December 2002, although banknotes remained exchangeable until 2022.
  4. A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate.
  5. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.[32][33] Otherwise, normal English plurals are used,[34] with many local variations such as centime in France.
  6. Bulgaria has negotiated an exception; euro in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet is spelled eвро (evro) and not eуро (euro) in all official documents.[125] In the Greek script the term ευρώ (evró) is used; the Greek “cent” coins are denominated in λεπτό/ά (leptó/á).

Some of these countries had the most serious sovereign financing problems. Use of the Euro outside the EUA number of sovereign states that are not part of the European Union have since adopted the Euro, including the Principality of Andorra, the Principality of Monaco, https://www.day-trading.info/junior-front-end-developer-job-description/ the Republic of San Marino, and the Vatican City. The Euro is used as a trading currency in Cuba, North Korea, and Syria and several currencies are pegged to it. Our currency rankings show that the most popular US Dollar exchange rate is the USD to USD rate.

Against other major currencies

The euro is the official currency of the European Union (EU), adopted by 19 of its 27 member nations. It is the world’s second most popular reserve currency after the U.S. dollar, and the second most traded. These countries generally had previously implemented a currency peg to one of the major European currencies (e.g. the French franc, Deutsche Mark or Portuguese escudo), and when these currencies were replaced by the euro their currencies became pegged to the euro.

Understanding the Euro

The changeover period during which the former currencies’ notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February 2002. The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state. The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more.

The European Currency Unit was an accounting unit used by the EU, based on the currencies of the member states; it was not a currency in its own right. They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies (principally pound sterling) that day. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, and a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used (as opposed to the less common Greek or Cyrillic) and Arabic numerals (other text is used on national sides in national languages, but other text on the common side is avoided). For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states of the union as of 2002.

The following EU member states are legally obligated to adopt the euro, though they do not have a deadline for adoption. Bulgaria and Romania are actively working to adopt the euro, while the remaining states do not plan to switch in the near future. Create a chart for any currency pair in the world to see their currency history. These currency charts use live mid-market rates, are easy to use, and are very reliable.

Adopting the euro eliminated foreign exchange risk for European businesses and financial institutions with cross-border operations in the increasingly integrated EU economy. The fiscal and monetary prerequisites for adopting the euro what is a cross rate and how to derive one 2020 have also encouraged deeper political integration of member states. Value of Obsolete National CurrenciesEuro bank notes and coins began circulating in 2002 with old notes and coins gradually being withdrawn from circulation.

Check live rates, send money securely, set rate alerts, receive notifications and more. The Xe Rate Alerts will let you know when the rate you need is triggered on your selected currency pairs.

Currencies pegged to the euro

The euro is managed and administered by the European Central Bank (ECB, Frankfurt am Main) and the Eurosystem, composed of the central banks of the eurozone countries. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of euro banknotes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the eurozone payment systems. Unlike most of the national currencies that they replaced, euro banknotes do not display famous national figures. The seven colourful bills, designed by the Austrian artist Robert Kalina and ranging in denomination from €5 to €500, symbolize the unity of Europe and feature a map of Europe, the EU’s flag, and arches, bridges, gateways, and windows. The coins feature one side with a common design; the reverse sides’ designs differ in each of the individual participating countries.

Other countries that adopted the currency include Slovakia (2009), Estonia (2011), Latvia (2014), Lithuania (2015), and Croatia (2023). (The euro is also the official currency in several areas outside the EU, including Andorra, Montenegro, Kosovo, and San Marino.) The 20 participating EU countries are known as the euro area, euroland, or the euro zone. Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro.

The definitive values of one euro in terms of the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro are shown in the table. The euro is the sole legal tender in the EU member states that have adopted it, including Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain. These countries form the eurozone, a region where the euro serves as the common currency. Four small non-EU nations (Andorra, Vatican City, San Marino, and Monaco) also use the euro as their official currency and several countries have currencies pegged to the euro.

Outside the eurozone, two EU member states have currencies that are pegged to the euro, which is a precondition to joining the eurozone. The Danish krone and Bulgarian lev are pegged due to their participation in the ERM II. The symbol € is based on the Greek letter epsilon (Є), with the first letter in the word “Europe” and with 2 parallel lines signifying stability. Thomas J Catalano is a CFP and Registered Investment Adviser with the state of South Carolina, where he launched his own financial advisory firm in 2018. Thomas’ experience gives him expertise in a variety of areas including investments, retirement, insurance, and financial planning.

Macroeconomic stability

For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments (e.g., credit cards, debit cards and cash machine withdrawals). To participate in the currency, member states are meant to meet strict criteria, such as a budget deficit of less than 3% of their GDP, a debt ratio of less than 60% of GDP (both of which were ultimately widely flouted after introduction), low inflation, and interest rates close to the EU average. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro.

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